Explosive Ingredients Found In Everyday Items

Explosives are reactive substances that contain amounts of potential energy that if released under certain conditions can make things go KABOOM! It is interesting to note that there are explosive ingredients contained in everyday items although they are found in small and safe amounts. However, the use of large amounts of these chemicals can be catastrophic. There have been several reports of cases where people use everyday products to make explosives that have been quite destructive. Let’s explore 5 of these explosive ingredients.

1. Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical used in fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides. It is relatively safe if it is stored properly and remains uncontaminated. If large amounts of this chemical is exposed to intense heat, it can become violently explosive. Explosions can be triggered if ammonium nitrate is stored close to fuel in poorly ventilated rooms. In 1995, farm fertilizer packed on a truck was used in a terrorist attack in Oklahoma City, killing many people. Today, countries have laws regulating the sale of ammonium nitrate.

2. Butane

Butane is a chemical found in products such as aerosol sprays, cigarette lighters and barbecue grills. It is produced by fractional distillation of fossil fuel. Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of butane and petroleum and is used in heating appliances. Butane is highly flammable and can become explosive if stored in poorly ventilated rooms, if there are leaks and if it is ignited by flames or sparks. In 2018, a butane hash oil lab exploded in Michigan causing injuries and significant damage to property.

3. Picric Acid

Picric acid is an organic compound used in electric batteries, matches and to manufacture colored glass and dyes. Picric acid also has antiseptic and astringent properties and is used in some anesthetic and burn ointments. Laboratories also use it to test for creatinine. Picric acid is a very combustible material and during World War I, it was used extensively in bombs and grenades. It is a yellow mass of moist crystals but when dry, the crystals become unstable and are sensitive to shock, friction and heat and can create a powerful explosion. As such, it must always be kept wet with a minimum of 10% water.

4. Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose is a compound which is produced by treating common cellulose with nitric acid. This compound is found in propellants, paint, nail polish, plastic, leather finishings, vanish and resins. Nitrocellulose is also used in manufacturing explosives. If the content of nitrogen in nitrocellulose is greater than 12.6%, it is considered to be explosive. In 2015, there was a devastating explosion in a chemical factory in Tianjin, China which was a result of nitrocellulose being ignited. This caused the death of a few hundred people and extensive damage to property.

5. Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin is a nitrate vasodilator drug used in medicine to treat hypertension, chest pain and heart failure. This drug, which is available in spray, tablet and intravenous forms, helps widen blood vessels in the body. In spite of being so useful, it is a powerful explosive which is used in most forms of dynamite and is combined with nitrocellulose in propellants for rockets and missiles. Ascanio Sobrero was the first to produce nitroglycerin in 1846 making this explosive even stronger than black powder. Alfred Nobel manufactured it on a large scale mainly for the purpose of mining.

Ridiculous Fashion Trends That Should Stay in the Past

The term fashion trends can be broadly used as a popular style of self expression that is embraced at a particular time and place. This can mean trends in clothing, accessories, footwear and make-up to name a few. Fashion trends evolve over time and I’m sure that while looking at old photos of your parents or grandparents you’ve observed that what they wore then were quite different to what is worn today, although some trends have resurfaced to some extent. There are some fashion trends of the past however, that many view as ridiculous and think that they should remain in the past and not make a comeback. Here are 5 of these fashion trends.

1. Hobble Skirts

The hobble skirt became popular in the early 1900s and although there were many designers who claimed that they should be credited for inventing the hobble skirt, in 1908, French designer, Paul Poiret, said that his design had “shackled the legs.” Hobble skirts were ankle-length skirts which were so narrow at the hem that they restricted movement greatly and allowed wearers to take short strides. Only women who were privileged wore them because these skirts were certainly not functional for the busy, working woman.

2. Clothing Made From Flour Sacks/Bags

The fashion trend of sewing flour bags into ladies’ clothing showed that housewives of that time were resourceful. During the Great Recession, rural families were forced to be frugal. Nothing went to waste including flour bags which were used to make dresses, towels and household furnishings. The bag manufacturers responded to this by adding color and lovely designs to the bags. By the late 1930s, this trend became quite popular. There were national sewing competitions which featured dresses made from flour sacks.

3. Bullet Bras

The bizarre bullet bra was a creation which emerged in the 1940s. The intention behind these sharply pointed, conical shaped bras was to accentuate a woman’s figure and to ensure that women stood upright at all times. It began to lose its popularity in the late 1950s when soft cup bras which gave a more natural silhouette were introduced. Though Madonna brought back this bra during the Blonde Ambition tour in 1990, this trend didn’t make a comeback. For people who love this vintage look, there are still a few bullet bra makers out there.

4. Crinolines

This trend took flight in the mid 19th century and is one that you may have seen in movies set in that time. Crinolines were stiff structured petticoats used to provide support to large skirts and give a bell shape. Before this, women wore multiple layers of petticoats which were heavy and unhygienic. Wearing crinolines was dangerous as the large dresses got caught in passing carriages and machinery which crushed the wearers. The dresses also ignited when women stood too close to fireplaces or the skirts swept over coal or flames.

5. Zibellino

Zibellino, also called flea-fur or fur tippet, was a fashion accessory worn by women of the late 15th century. This was the pelt of a marten, a weasel-like mammal, which was worn around the neck, hanging at the waist or held in the hand. The heads which were still attached were accessorized with gold and precious jewels. This was used by those in the upper echelons of society such as high-ranking noble and royalty. The faux version was later created in the 16th century and replaced the use of actual animals.

Fascinating Diseases That You Can Smell

Although physicians are taught to use all their senses upon entering a room to diagnose patients, they rely heavily on laboratory findings from medical tests. Physicians also rely on equipment and instruments like the stethoscope to examine patients. One would not believe that smell is one of the senses that can be used in diagnosing diseases and disorders. There are some scents that are emitted by certain diseases. Let’s look at 5 of these diseases.

1. Typhoid Fever

In 1976, a medical journal article explained that patients who suffer from typhoid fever discharge a smell like freshly baked bread. While the scent of freshly baked bread may be satisfying, the disease is pretty terrifying. Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Typhi. It may be mild or severe, but its symptoms include high fever, abdominal pain, weakness, constipation and a rose-coloured skin rash. Typhoid fever is not very common but it occurs in areas which are unhygienic. The disease can be treated with antibiotics, although some strains are more resistant today.

2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes. When the body does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin, the body cannot use glucose to create energy which it needs. Instead, fat is broken down to get energy and ketones are produced in the process. Acetone is the main ketone. The body then enters a state of diabetic ketoacidosis. In this condition, the ketone levels rise to unsafe levels. The acetone in the body, which is a similar component found in nail polish, has a fruity smell that is easy to detect. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be diagnosed by this smell on the patient’s breath.

3. Maple Syrup Urine Disease

A person who suffers from maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), experiences a sweet smell of maple syrup every time he or she urinates. This disease is a metabolic disorder that affects the process in which the patient breaks down certain amino acids. This means that the amino acids are excreted from the body through the urine which causes a distinct smell. Infants who are affected by this disease, may look normal and healthy at birth and can later develop life threatening symptoms. Sweet smelling urine is an early sign of maple syrup urine disease. There is no cure but it can be controlled.

4. Arsenic Poisoning

Arsenic is a highly toxic chemical which has been used for centuries to manufacture a large number of products ranging from pesticides to bullets. People who live in remote villages can get in contact with this chemical through contaminated ground water. Arsenic poisoning blocks enzymes which the body requires to create energy. Some of the symptoms of arsenic toxicity are vomiting, abdominal pain, encephalopathy, bloody diarrhea and eventually death. A garlic odor which emanates from the body of a victim is a symptom of arsenic toxicity.

5. Bacterial Infections

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is a bacterium which may cause many types of infections in humans. It is a common infection in persons suffering from diabetes, cystic fibrosis, burn patients and persons using drugs. If not treated with urgency, it can become very dangerous. It is rated an opportunistic bacteria because it relies on pre-existing diseases or conditions to occur. Although it can be identified in laboratory tests, it is obvious by a grape-like odor from the patient. Some people also describe the odor as being similar to a tortilla.

Historical Meetings That Shaped the World Today

If you’re in the corporate world or affiliated with any organization, meetings are featured in your schedule. You’ve sat around the table discussing important matters and making decisions with your team, in an effort to meet various objectives. But how many of us can say that we’ve had the privilege of participating in a meeting so significant that it revolutionized the world and had implications that have greatly impacted the past, present and maybe future? History shows that there have been a few of these gatherings. Let’s take a look at a few historical meetings that have shaped the world today.

1. The Senate Debate about Caesar

The Roman Senate met on January 7, 49BC to discuss Julius Caesar and the power that he had gained. The senate ordered Caesar to surrender his well-trained legion but he refused. Instead, Caesar rebelled and he was declared an enemy of the state by the senate. This meeting was significant as it gave rise to the civil war between Rome’s great generals, Caesar and Pompey, where Caesar was victorious. The decision taken at this meeting had implications for Rome and the world.

2. Bretton Woods Conference

In 1944 when the end of World War II was in sight, there was a gathering of 730 delegates of the Allied Nations in Bretton Wood, New Hampshire. Representatives from 44 countries including the US attended. They recognized that after the war, countries that were once wealthy would require investment and thus needed a new financial system. At this meeting, called the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, major decisions were made that began the groundwork for some of the organizations we know today. The decisions led to the development of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, now known as the World Bank.

3. The First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea of Christian bishops was convened in AD 325 by the Roman emperor Constantine I. It was the first ecumenical council of the Christian church. This meeting defined the Christian Church’s doctrine regarding the trinity and the relationship between God and Jesus, which was a topic of contention. This formed the foundation of the theological thinking of Christianity which continues to be shared with followers today.

4. The Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference was held in Yalta in the Crimea region in the USSR in February 1945 when the end of the war was near. At this conference, heads of Government of the United States- Roosevelt; Britain- Churchill and the Soviet Union- Stalin, met to discuss the future of Germany post war. It was decided that Germany would be divided in 4 controlled zones for the United States, France, Britain and the Soviet Union. The decision regarding free elections was also made. One of the political developments out of this conference was the decision for the US, Britain and Soviet Union to join the United Nations. Some of the decisions brought about contention which led to the Cold War.

5. The Congress of Vienna

In 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated, relinquished his throne and sent into exile. By the end of the Napoleonic Conquest, Europe was left disorganized. The Congress of Vienna was convened in an effort to decide the future of Europe and reconstruct a European order. In attendance were representatives from Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia. It was decided that European borders and the political map would be changed.

Well-Known Idioms and Sayings We Often Misunderstand

Fluent writers and speakers use literary devices and expressions such as idioms and proverbs as they seek to add dynamism and character to their writing or speech. Though we use them often in our day to day conversations, you may be surprised to know that many of them are misunderstood and therefore wrongly used. Language is ever evolving and over time, these sayings which have been misinterpreted, become widespread, are accepted and replace the original phrases. Let’s take a look at well-known idioms and sayings that are often misunderstood.

1. A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss

We’ve heard this many times before, but what does it mean? This saying grew in popularity during the Renaissance when Erasmus, in 1500, published a collection of proverbs. It originally had a negative connotation and meant social irresponsibility. It spoke to the weakness of being rootless and not committing to family or career. This saying now denotes something different, particularly in youth culture where it means freedom, adventure and being free-spirited. Accepting its negative connotation or its contemporary use, is all a matter of perspective.

2. You Have Another Think Coming

Yes you may have read this thinking that it’s just an error but it isn’t. People often say “you have another thing coming” but this is a common error. The word “think” is often replaced with “thing”. This phrase is used to tell someone that they are wrong and should reconsider and adopt a different viewpoint. This is an example of an eggcorn, a phrase resulting from mishearing and misinterpretation of another. “Another think coming” was the original phrase and its earliest use was spotted in an Ohio newspaper in 1892 and “another thing coming” was seen in a New York newspaper from 1897.

3. I Couldn’t Care Less

The correct phrase “I couldn’t care less” is often replaced by “I could care less” which actually carries a totally different meaning, but are used interchangeably. The former means that you do not care about something at all while the latter means you do care a bit. So which of these have you been meaning to say and what have you really been communicating?

4. A Moot Point

A moot point is today referred to as a fact that is unimportant and not worth mentioning or is not relevant in a given situation. However, many people can be caught saying “a mute point.” While moot and mute are pronounced differently, persons seem to mishear the word moot. The word is not the only thing that has changed over time. Have you considered what a moot point really is? A moot point originally meant a topic at a moot. A moot was used to refer to a meeting of people for judicial purposes. The moot point would therefore be the issues or topics being discussed by the participants of the moot.

5. Pull Yourself Up by Your Bootstraps

This phrase should definitely not be taken literally as it is impossible to use your bootstraps to pull yourself up. Don’t just take it from me. Go ahead, put your boots on and try it. This expression was originally used to refer to a task that is impossible to achieve or to attempt to do something absurd. In the 1920s, this meaning began to evolve to its understanding today. It is now used as a motivational saying, to encourage someone to do something without the help of others, even though it may be difficult.

Lies We’re Told About GMOs

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are living organisms whose genetic makeup has been artificially manipulated through genetic engineering, in a laboratory, to achieve desired traits. The topic of GMOs has been one of much contention in the past few years, with proponents of its use believing that the benefits should be harnessed and opponents suggesting that they should be banned. While the jury may still be out on this, one thing is for sure, there are several lies that we have been fed about GMOs. Let’s debunk these!

1. GMOs are not Adequately Tested for Safety

Many believe that GMOs are unregulated, but this is far from the truth. In fact, there are strict biosafety protocols employed by governments to ensure that all genetically modified products are tested to ensure they do not threaten the lives of people, animals or affect the environment. There are agencies whose responsibility is making sure that protocols are adhered to and these crops are safe for consumption. The nutritional value, types of modifications and chemicals used on GMOs are all monitored.

2. GMOs Destroy the Environment

While the destruction of the environment by GMOs is a popular narrative, this is untrue. Research shows that GMOs are an ally in saving the environment. Herbicide tolerant crops destroy the surrounding weed without affecting the crops. Therefore, the soil does not have to be tilled often, thus maintaining soil health, reducing fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. Reduced tilling of the soil results in greater water retention, less run-offs and a reduction in water pollution. In addition, fewer pesticides are used by farmers of GMOs while increasing crop yields. This means that less land is used which results in decreased deforestation and harm to our already fragile ecosystem. So this technology helps conserve water, protects land and improves air quality.

3. GMOs are Affecting our Health

Studies continue to show that there is no correlation between GMOs and the health problems we experience. The consensus by the vast majority of health experts is that the available GMOs have no more health risks than conventional foods. These foods are closely studied and experiments have shown that GMOs do not cause toxicity that adversely affect organ health or function, affect pregnancy or offspring, nor is there evidence of gene transfer between GMOs and consumers.

4. GMOs are Not as Nutritious as Traditional Crops

GMOs are just as nutritious and healthy as traditional crops. It has been tested and proven that GMO crops have the same nutritional value as traditional crops. In fact, genetic engineering has the capability to produce biofortified crops, that is, the nutritional quality of staple foods can be enhanced through genetic engineering. This has been done with Golden Rice which is fortified with vitamin A. Such foods are expected to improve the diet of people with inadequate nutrition.

5. GMOs are Killing Bees

The population of bees, particularly honey bees, has been on the decline for some time. Between 2008 and 2013, the population of bees in the US declined by 30% and in Spain, about 80% of beehives was lost in that period. Bees play a pivotal role in the ecosystem and so, this trend is cause for concern. However, GMOs should not be blamed. The excessive use of agricultural chemicals has been identified as one of the factors negatively affecting bees, but remember, pest resistant GMOs result in fewer pesticides being used. Other factors resulting in the decline in the population of bees include diseases, mono-cropping and climate change.

The Biggest Lies We Believe About Recycling Plastics

The indiscriminate dumping of plastic threatens the environment and ecosystem. More plastic is being produced and recycling promises to reduce the amount of plastic in our environment- a Hail Mary some may say. Plastic recycling allows for the reprocessing of plastic waste into new and useful products. Ongoing sensitization encourages consumers to dispose of plastic waste appropriately, all in an effort to save our planet. While the valuable efforts to recycle must be highlighted, some of what we have been made to believe about recycling plastics are lies. These may be real eye openers.

1. Recycling Plastic is Beneficial to the Environment

Have you ever considered that recycling in itself also leads to pollution? To transport used plastics, trucks and ships burn fuel, releasing gases into the air. A high percentage of plastics taken to the recycling bins are contaminated or cannot be recycled. As such, they are rerouted to the landfill. Fuel and chemicals are used at recycling plants, releasing pollutants into the air and water. Some may say, the decision to recycle or not is truly a matter of choosing the lesser of the two evils.

2. Plastic is Recycled Indefinitely

Plastics are made from polymer chains, which are long chains of atoms that become shorter every time the plastic is recycled, thus changing its chemical composition and decreasing its quality. Thus, many plastics can only be recycled once or twice before the quality decreases to the extent that it can no longer be recycled. Recycled plastics are not used to manufacture the same product. For instance, soda bottles often can’t be recycled into another bottle, but instead, used to make sewer drain pipes.

3. All Plastics are Recyclable

Plastic bearing the recycling symbol doesn’t mean the item can be recycled. There are 7 categories of plastics according to Resin Identification Codes. This is based on the chemical makeup of the plastic. The higher the resin code, the lower the likelihood that the type of plastic can be easily recycled. Types 1 and 2 are often recycled. Type 3 plastics which include thin plastic bags are usually not recycled as they clog recycle machines. They are also inexpensive yet costly to recycle and therefore, not financially worthwhile for companies. Type 6 is styrofoam, and has a very low recycling rate.

4. Different Types of Plastics Can Be Mixed When Being Recycled

While you may be of the impression that recycling plants are able to recycle different types of plastics together, this is not the case. Many plastics cannot be mixed and must be separated based on their types or resin, as they have different melting temperatures and react differently when being processed into new products. Sorting is necessary and can be done manually or using technology capable of recognizing different types of plastics. Incompatible plastics, if mixed, result in weak material and contamination of batches of plastic which cannot be recycled.

5. The Plastic Industry is in Support of Recycling

The producers of plastic are aware that the majority of all plastics produced will not or cannot be recycled. Yet they continue to “support” recycling. Why? Plastic recycling was promoted by plastic companies from the inception, as a way to preempt plastic bans and sell more plastic. At that time, a growing backlash was threatening the future of the industry. More plastic is being produced and recyclable signs are placed on plastics that are rarely recycled. Consumers purchase in large volumes believing that it will later be recycled. When this is not done, the recycling industry becomes the scapegoat.

Reasons Why Caligula Was Rome’s Looniest Emperor

Just about every Roman emperor has a few crazy stories attached to their name but by far Gaius Caesar Augustaus Germanicus, also known by his nickname Caligula, was the most certifiably insane. Six ancient Romans wrote about him and his crazy escapades, and every single one of them came to the conclusion that he was a few fries short of a happy meal. Some of these stories are so crazy that some people are even skeptical that they even happened. Here are five reasons that solidifies Caligula’s title as Rome’s looniest emperor.

1. He Wouldn’t Let Anyone Mention Goats Around Him

As rash as he was, Caligula was very sensitive when it came to his hair. It pretty much grew everywhere except where he wanted it the most: his head. He had a bald spot, one that he went to great lengths to make sure that no one could make fun of. So much so that he made it illegal to mention the word “goat” in his presence. It is also reported that he stopped artists from drawing his bald spot, though it did show up in written descriptions.

2. He Threatened to Beat Up a God

It is believed that Caligula may have been severely mentally ill. Aside from his brash and sadistic personality, he also suffered hallucinations which affected his sleep because they were worse at night. According to the philosopher Seneca, he once witnessed Caligula threaten Jupiter, the god of thunder. Apparently the emperor became furious when thunder started to roar during a ballet show, which led to Caligula storming outside and threatening to beat the god to death.

3. He Invited His Horse to Drink Wine at His Dinner Table

According to multiple sources, Caligula treated his horse Incitatus way better than he did most people. The horse lived in a multiple room house fitted complete furniture and a crew of slaves who were ordered to follow the horse’s every command. He even invited Incitatus to dine with him where the horse was served wine in golden goblets. Caligula made sure that Incitatus was well rested: it is said that he sent his soldiers to threaten the crowd at a game into silence after noticing that their cheering was bothering the horse.

4. He Rode a Horse Across a Gulf Just to Prove a Fortune-Teller Wrong

When an astrologer named Thrasyllus predicted that Caligula had “no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Gulf of Baiae,” he made it his duty to do exactly that. He rounded up every ship he could find and had them line up across the gulf, then ordered slaves to lay earth upon them, creating a huge bridge in the process. And in true to his word, Caligula strutted across the bridge back and forth for two days straight on his favorite horse, Incitatus.

5. He Tried to Replace the Head on the Statue of Zeus with His Own

Not even the title of emperor could satisfy Caligula’s ego. He wanted to be a god with a cult who worshiped his very being. So much so that he had temples constructed in his honor, both in Rome and Syria. He even had plans to place a stone carving of his face in place of that of Zeus at Olympia, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. And bull sacrifices just wouldn’t cut it either: his followers had to sacrifice peacocks and flamingos in his honor—only the finest animals would do.

Cool Animals With Their Own Life Hacks

Hop on the internet and without a doubt, you can find a life hack for just about anything: work, school, cooking, you name it. But it’s not just us humans who engage in life hacks: even our buddies in the animal kingdom have their unique tricks up their sleeves that makes it easier to navigate life in the wild. They may not have technology, but they sure know how to make the most of what they have. Here are some of the coolest animals and their equally cool life hacks that you didn’t know about.

1. Dolphin Sleeping Hack

Although dolphins live in the water, they’re still mammals and if they fall asleep fully, they can drown because breathing is a conscious function. To prevent this, dolphins have evolved to sleep with only one half of their brain asleep at a time. This is known as unihemispheric sleep, and using this technique, dolphins can stay awake for up to 15 days at a time. It also allows them to remain alert for attacks from predators such as sharks, something they wouldn’t be able to do if they were fully asleep.

2. Crocodile Diving Hack

While humans need special gears and equipment to dive into the ocean, crocodiles have a much simpler way of getting this done. When this ferocious predator needs to scan the floor of a river to catch dinner, they’ll simply gulp down a few stones and rocks. By doing this, they’re actually increasing their body weight which allows them to sink down below with ease. Not only does the rock aid in swimming, but it also plays a crucial role in digestion by breaking down any of the tougher shelled prey that the creature eats.

3. Plumed Basilisk Walking Hack

The animal kingdom has a messiah of their own known as the plumed basilisk lizard which is appropriately nicknamed the “Jesus Christ lizard” due to the reptile’s unique ability to sprint across bodies of water. When threatened by predators, the basilisk lizard will drop from the tree into the water and make a run for it. The basilisk lizard is able to pull this off thanks to the skin-like scales on their rear feet which expands when hitting liquid to increase the surface area of each foot that contacts the water.

4. Rhino Cleaning Hack

Life in the wild means that animals are prone to blood-sucking ticks which irritates their skin. Unable to get rid of it on their own, rhinos have developed a mutual and trusting relationship with oxpeckers that eat all the ticks as part of the birds’ blood-based diet. Oxpeckers also notify their friends of nearby predators. This is because rhinos are shortsighted and can’t tell that predators are nearby until it’s too late. Though the oxpecker is most likely less worried about the rhino and more so that it doesn’t want another animal to eat its lunch!

5. Stick Insect Birth Hack

Some human women will shout at the rooftops that they don’t need a man, but for female stick insects, this is a reality. If well-fed, the female stick insect is able to give birth through parthenogenesis, a method of procreation that allows the female to lay unfertilized eggs all on her own. But it doesn’t end there: it turns out that the females really don’t want to mate at all. They have also developed an anti-aphrodisiac chemical which they spray at random males to keep them away.

Singers Who Were Caught Shamelessly Lip Synching

In the music industry, it’s pretty normal for singers to not always sing live. Some only do it sparingly in between songs in order to catch their breath or to save their voice. Plus there’s also the backing tracks which impacts the audio quality, making it hard to tell if they’re singing live or not. Many fans know this and most are usually bummed out about this fact. Sometimes, they’re caught red-handed too. Either the audio was messed up or their singing was a little too perfect. No matter the reason, here are five singers who were caught shamelessly lip synching.

1. Beyonce (2013)

The Queen Bee herself has always had rumors of lip synching following her. In her case, it’s most likely that she does a bit of both live singing and lip synching at her concerts which can be quite taxing. But the biggest incident of her lip-synching was at President Obama’s 2013 inauguration where she sang the national anthem. Surprisingly, she didn’t deny it, claiming that there wasn’t enough time for preparation, both on her own and with the orchestra. But at least it was her own voice.

2. Mariah Carey (2016)

Without a doubt, Mariah Carey is an amazing artist but even she has her moments when things go awry. During a 2016 New Years Eve performance, there was little to zero effort on her part to hide the fact that she was lip-synching the songs. In fact, she was just casually talking to the crowd while the audio played in the background. She also went from live singing to lipping and vice versa, and even encouraged the crowd to sing at one point. But none of that was her since she was unable to hear the audio coming out her ear monitor.

3. Britney Spears (2007)

Like Beyonce, Britney Spears is one who has had accusations of lip synching surrounding her since the beginning of her career. Although the “Princess of Pop” has never really admitted to the rumors, there was no denying the incident at the 2007 MTV awards where her lip synching was as clear as day. It wasn’t even her own voice or song: instead of “Gimme More,” it was one of Sia’s songs. The media can be cruel, so you could imagine how they were reacting to this!

4. Selena Gomez (2010s)

Since her Disney career, Selena Gomez had built a fairly strong career for herself, with a loyal fanbase to boot. But going all the way back to 2010, she has been accused of lip synching at the majority of her performances. Though, it’s not really an accusation since there are several videos of exactly this and she herself has spilled the beans on herself on the hot mic. But her fans seem to like it, and they’re her consumers, so does it really matter?

5. Ashley Simpson (2004)

Unlike Britney Spears who went with the flow even though she sounded nothing like Sia, Ashlee Simpson instead broke into a hoedown when the wrong backtrack started playing. In 2004, Jessica Simpson’s younger sister took to the stage on Saturday Night Live to perform her new single. But she was unable to get a single word out due to the aforementioned mix up, so she resorted to awkwardly dancing before abandoning the stage altogether. Instead of owning up to it, she pretty much threw the band under the bus, claiming they played the wrong song.

Get the Word of the Day sent directly to your inbox!